"Forty-one people were arrested in possession of explosives, enough to destroy (the capital) Khartoum," said public prosecutor Tagelsir al-Hebr in a press conference, adding that his office had opened an investigation.
Intelligence gathered since August on "the movements of terrorist groups" led to the arrests, according to Jamal Jumaa, spokesman for the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces.
"We fear now that some Sudanese people will resort to carrying out sabotage and bombings," he said. "This is a threat to Sudanese national security."
Jumaa said the materials seized included an explosive compound similar to that which caused the massive blast in the Lebanese capital on August 4.
The explosion of tonnes of ammonium nitrate at Beirut's port killed at least 190 people and devastated large swathes of the city.
Sudan is currently led by a transitional government, which took power months after the April 2019 ouster of longtime president Omar al-Bashir.